On October 18 and 19, 2023, the Richard Nixon Foundation convened twenty-four prominent national security experts in Washington, D.C. for the second annual Grand Strategy Summit.

Top 10 key takeaways from the six panels and two keynote sessions:

1. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has lacked a Grand Strategy for its role in the world

2. National political leaders need to do a better job explaining why it’s important to average Americans that we provide support to allies and around the world

3.  The United States needs to more clearly define its “end game” goals for Ukraine and the Middle East

4.  The U.S. needs to be more effective in deterring foreign adversaries from aggression

5.  Economic sanctions are only effective if they are enforced

6.  George Washington’s statement to Congress in 1790 remains true today: “To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.”

7.  Paying ransom for hostages encourages the taking of more hostages

8.  America’s Defense Industrial Base needs to be rebuilt

9.  The absence of a comprehensive American grand strategy creates openings for other global powers, as demonstrated by China’s Belt and Road Initiative; there is opportunity for America to strengthen relationships with allies in developing nations.

10.  America needs to regain its energy independence